CMP Blood Test: What Does It Mean and What Does It Tell About Your Health

CMP blood test is referred to as a comprehensive metabolic panel that is typically used to measure the level of blood sugar, electrolyte and fluid balance, liver function and kidney function.

In this article, you will get to know the CMP blood analysis results explained.

These measurements are meant to provide information about the current health status of the body, metabolism and chemical balance.

According to doctors at the Mayo Clinic, the blood test can be used to diagnose certain conditions like diabetes, kidney disease, liver disease, and hypertension.

In this post, you will learn what it means to have high CMP and what low CMP means.

You will also get insight into the reasons for abnormal CMP readings. You will also find out what to do if you have low or high CMP.

What Is CMP Blood Test and What Is It Used For?

According to doctors on Cleveland clinic, a comprehensive metabolic panel is a series of blood tests that give a doctor a general insight about your body chemistry and the way it is using energy. It is also known as chem 14, Chem-12, or CHEM 20.

CMP in a blood test is quite common to those people who go for yearly checkup in their healthcare.

However, it can be used by your doctor to keep track of a certain chronic condition in your body.

It can also be used to ensure certain medication administered do not hurt your liver or kidney.

Is fasting required for a CMP blood test? Well, fasting is required when testing blood glucose level which is part of CMP.

You will be expected to take water only during your fast for at least 12 hours before testing.

Symptoms of Abnormal CMP Blood Results

Certain symptoms may imply whether you are having low or high CMP readings after a blood test.

Some of the symptoms linked to low CMP reading include confusion, dizziness, headaches, pale skin, weakness, anxiety, hunger and racing pulse.

On the other hand, patients with high CMP is associated with symptoms such as hormonal imbalances, kidney problem, poor bone formation, pancreases problems, high blood sugar, dehydration, and many others.

What Are Low, Normal, High Levels Of CMP Blood Results?

Normal range: This is usually the reference range but it depends on the lab handling the test.

This is because different labs use different equipment and also have a different way of analyzing the result.

Low range: This is the reading when the level of CMP is below the reference range while High range refers to those readings that are above the normal range.

The following are some of the various blood parameters that are tested during CMP. They include:

  1. Blood glucose level

Glucose in the body is produced during the breakdown of carbohydrates and it happens to be the main source of energy.

Normally, the level of glucose rise after a meal and the decrease over time. High level of glucose in the body can cause damage.

Too much glucose in the body could indicate that you have diabetes while too low glucose level could mean certain condition known as hypoglycemia.

Therefore, the comprehensive metabolic panel normal ranges for glucose level are between 70 and 100 mg/dL.

  1. Kidney Function Tests

According to doctors on WebMD, kidneys are used to purify the blood.

These organs are meant to control the level of electrolyte within the body. The main components tested during CMP include:

  • Creatinine

This is a waste product found in the blood and urine. It is generated in the body during the process of mobilization of food.

Therefore, the kidney filters out the waste product from the blood and transfer to the urine.

Kidney problem arises when there is a low level of creatinine in the urine and higher levels in the blood.

The normal range of Creatinine is between 0.6 and 1.3 mg/dL.

  • Blood Urea Nitrogen

This is a waste product found in both urine and blood. The testing of urea can be used to gauge kidney functioning.

They are mainly produced during the breakdown of proteins in the body.

Kidney problem arises when there is a high level of urea in the blood. The normal range of BUN is between 6 and 20 mg/dL.

  1. Liver Function Tests

According to doctors on the mayo clinic, the liver is known to get rid of toxic substances in the body.

It is also known to synthesize proteins. Some of the common tests conducted include:

  • Albumin

This is a type of protein produced by the liver. It plays the role of keeping blood inside the blood vessels.

It is also used in the transportation of acids, hormones, and drugs through the blood system.

Poor liver functioning is brought about by the low level of albumin. The normal range is between 3.4 to 5.4 grams per deciliter.

  • Globulin

They are typically a group of proteins in the blood that enhances blood circulation.

The real problem can result in a low level while a high level could be due to a bone marrow disorder.

  • Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)

It is produced in the liver as well in the kidney, heart, and pancreases.

Damage in the liver is likely to result in a high level of ALT. The normal range is between 10 to 40 IU/L.

  • Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)

This is a type of an enzyme that is produced in the bones and organs. However, it is mainly produced in the liver.

Therefore, poor liver functioning and bone disorder can result in a low level of ALP during CMP blood results.

  • Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST)

This is an enzyme found in the red blood cells, liver, heart, pancreas, kidneys, and muscle tissue.

High level of AST during CMP blood analysis is positive if any of the named organs are damaged.

  1. Blood Lipid Levels

This typically meant for keeping track of cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood.

You are likely to develop atherosclerosis when the level of lipids in blood is high. This can later result in heart attack and stroke.

  1. Electrolytes

They are mainly meant for balancing the level of fluids in the body.

They play other roles like maintaining heartbeat as well as how the muscles and brain work. Abnormal results may trigger heart diseases or kidney disease.

Normal ranges are:

  • CO2 (carbon dioxide): 23 to 29 milliequivalents per liter (meq/L)
  • Chloride: 96 to 106 meq/L
  • Potassium: 3.7 to 5.2 meq/L
  • Sodium: 135 to 145 meq/L
  1. Calcium

They are essential for healthy muscles, nerves, and hormones. Any abnormal level of calcium could result in hormonal imbalance or problems with kidneys, bones, or pancreas.

The normal range is 8.5 to 10.2 mg/dL. This is according to Dr. William Blahd, MD on WebMD.

What Do If CMP Is Low or High

Abnormal CMP blood result could mean several medical problems. Some of these medical conditions include kidney failure, liver disease, breathing problems, and diabetes complications.

You will be expected to visit your health care in order to conduct another test before pinpointing a certain medical condition.

This will help to identify the underlying cause and form of treatment adopt.

CMP Vs BMP Blood Test

The basic metabolic panel (BMP) and comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) tests are generally part of a blood test that gives your doctor measure of the certain level of substances in the blood.

During physical or checkup, your doctor may order both BMP and CMP. Abnormal level of both CMP and BMP in the blood may imply a certain condition in the body.

These tests are used for different reasons. In the case of CMP blood analysis, it gives the following insight to your doctor:

  • Albumin: A protein that can indicate liver or kidney issues
  • Total protein which accounts for overall blood protein levels
  • Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) which is a liver enzyme that can indicate liver or bone conditions
  • Alanine aminotransferase (ALT or SGPT) which is an enzyme in your kidneys and liver that can indicate liver damage
  • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST or SGOT) is an enzyme in liver and heart cells that can also indicate liver damage
  • Bilirubin which is created when your liver naturally breaks down red blood cells

BMP blood test gives your doctor insight about the following in the blood:

  • Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) or how much nitrogen is in your blood to measure kidney function
  • Creatinine, another indicator of kidney function
  • Glucose or blood sugar (having high or low blood sugar could both indicate pancreatic issues)
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2), or bicarbonate, a gas that can indicate issues with your kidneys or lungs
  • Calcium, which can indicate bone, kidney, or thyroid issues (though sometimes not included in a BMP)
  • Sodium and potassium, minerals that indicate your body’s overall fluid balance
  • Chloride, an electrolyte that indicates the fluid balance

FURTHER REFERENCES

  1. What’s the Difference between a CMP and BMP, the Two Common Blood Tests Ordered by Doctor? https://www.healthline.com/health/cmp-vs-bmp
  2. What Is a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel? https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/comprehensive-metabolic-panel#1
  3. What Does A Comprehensive Metabolic Panel Include? https://www.walkinlab.com/blog/comprehensive-metabolic-panel-include/
  4. Comprehensive metabolic panel: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comprehensive_metabolic_panel
  5. Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP): https://labtestsonline.org/tests/comprehensive-metabolic-panel-cmp